Sunday, 29 June 2014

Brick Lane

Wednesday, 12 December 2012

Ex-terrestrial Light

Bangladesh in 1993 in the full moonlit night we were walking on our way to a musical party, but we not using our torchlight’s at 10 pm onward suddenly I have seen an ex-terrestrial light moving with me, nearby the paddy field beside the canal between Nurainpur commonly know as Narayanpur through the Gupat (animals way to the grazing field) via Abu Khali to buraya.

Just after passing the cobbler house, where we were walking through the dirt and mud track to Buraya for musical treaty party especially set-up for me, which was arranged by my maternal nephew Mukit Miah of Paschim bari Narayanpur and also his accompanied group, late Choto Miah or Suto Miah of Shahjeer family (Ghoshty). Late Salim of Narayanpur and Amir Uddin from Syedpur who married to a woman from Narayanpur Chowdhury-bari.

At one point by the cobbler of Abu Khali asked mukit where we going together“Mukit'' answer buraya. “After that I asked mukit what is my identity there because the whole villagers knew my family very well for the reason that the school-bari of Shaharpara own most of the land of buraya or buraiya which paddy field they used to ploughs with the water buffalo and tractor until (1978) and then later give-away those land to many peasant families there.

He replies your identity should be from Nayabondar and working in Chittagong here on holiday. After that suddenly seen an ex-terrestrial light moving with me and I am in the middle of it,

I thought nobody could see, its reflection from what I was wearing but Mukit says stop walking, there is a light flowing us. He said please move slowly one by one, everybody moved but as I walk its moving with me, as I am jumping it does as well. I was in tracksuits and trainers.

I played about for few minutes stretching the limbs and the arms to touch the light where I remained myself exact accuracy in the middle of the alien light for maybe ten minutes. After that, I felt very special about myself and bit scary as thinking of my own grave, I cannot get out of the light,

where I am walking in the middle of the two-dimensional cage adequately the size of tube-light, glow on the ground of the earth. Then we reached the destination, where our party took place. Suddenly the light disappeared. The shape of the alien light is likely to round top door or arch.
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Saturday, 10 March 2012

Dilly's Family Legacy

Dilly Meah
Akbar-kutir of west Tilak Sunamganj Bangladesh
Born in Akbar-kutir, commonly known as Master-bari of west Tilak also spelled Tilok the neighbouring village Shaharpara where the noble family originated from the early fourteenth century. There, are the shrines of my ancestors commonly known as Hazrat Shah Kamal (RA) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) Sahib (Royal Highnesspredecessor of twelve Sufi saints of Sylhet  Division as well as the successor of the Naqshbandi the spiritual world of Sufism (the way to God Allāh (Subānahu wa ta'ala). The tomb of Hazrat Pir Kallu Shah (RA) is in AzimabadPatna, (also known by its ancient name Pataliputra), Bihar province, in India and his family including his wife and sons who are all located in Shaharpara

The ancestry can be traced back to four millenniums: the clan of the Quraysh tribe of Arabs the children of Abraham. In Islamic traditionsprophet Ibrahim Khalilullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) is considered a prophet of Islam, an ancestor of Hazrat Muhammad, (peace be upon him) through Hazrat Ismail (peace be upon himIshmael the firstborn son of Abraham from the second wife and also the ancestor of Quraysh clan.

Private rd linked Akbar-kutir to the main rd
Hazrat Hajar (Hagar) Hagar Muslim called Hazrat Bibi Hajra (may Allah be pleased with her) the mother of Ismail (Ishmael), to commemorate the blessing of the Zamzam  well which God Allah (Subḥānahu wa ta'āla) gave to Hagar and Ishmael Zamzam well. Muslims run between the Safa and Marwah hills retracing Hagar’s steps on her search for water, during the rites of Hajj.[30] thus where the family legacy links like most of the Awliyas or Auliyas (Sufi saintsbiological inheritance. The clan of the Quraysh tribe were a powerful merchant tribe that controlled Makkah and its Kaaba the Tribes of ArabiaSylhetChittagongMaldaPanduaBengalGujaratWest BengalEast BengalBangladeshDelhiAjmerBiharRajasthan, Sindh, Sindhi, PunjabKonyaIndia, Lahore, Peshawar, Pakistan, MultanAfghanistan, Burma, IndonesiaEastern BengalMalaysiaSingaporeChina, TurkeyAsia or rest of the world and also the noble family legacy can be stretches to backup the Muslim era as well as being supporting the Muslim governance's of the Sultan (kingHazrat Shah Jalal who invaded Sylhet part of Assam in IndiaMuslim invasions of India

In the year 1303 AD, Hazrat Shah Jalal (Shaikh-al-Mushaek Shah Jalal ad-Din bin Mahmoud al-Yemeni) the padishah (Great King) who vanquished Sylhet (Gor kingdom or Gaur kingdom) with aid of his 360 disciples and the Muslim military might of Sultan  Shamsuddin Firoz Shah he would be in his mid-thirties at the time of his accession to the throne of Lakhnauti in 1301 CE. He ascended the throne with the title of Al-sultan Al-Azam Shams Al-Duniya wa Al-Din Abu Al-Muzaffar Firoz Shah Al-Sultan and invoked the name of the Abbaside Caliph Mustasim Billah in his coin

The monarch Hazrat Shah Jalal ruled Sylhet until his death 1346 or 1347 or even 1350 CE, birth and death of Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) were unclear but at the time of his death, he was around one hundred. In 1345 A.D. Muhammad Ibn Battuta visited Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) and was a guest for three days at his lodge in Sylhet. At one stage he mentioned to Ibn Battuta when Caliph Al-Mu'tasim Billah (left) imprisons among his treasures to starve him to death by Hulagu Khan (Genghis Khan's grandson) at that time he was a teenager. 

Sikandar Khan Ghazi or Sikandar Shah Ghazi the army commander and direct nephew of Sultan Shamsuddin Firoz Shah who attempted twice and failed to take Gaur Govinda (also spelled Gor Govind or Gour Gobinda or Gur Govind) into the presence of his Sultan. After the conquest of Srihatta Kingdoms and Silhatta with the miraculous power of Hazrat Shah Jalal and his followers, Gaur Govinda defeated the army of Sultan Shamsuddin Firoz Shah.

Hazrat Sikandar Khan Ghazi (RA) and his commander-in-chief Hazrat Syed Nasir Uddin Sipah Salar (RA) were astonished by the spiritual acts of Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA). They declared the oath of allegiance to Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) and became the disciples of Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) and then he crowned Hazrat Sultan Shah Sikandar Khan Ghazi (RA) as the first Muslim King and the ruler of Greater-Sylhet. 

An administrative unit of Sylhet was accomplished at the hand of Hazrat Sultan Shah Sikandar Khan Ghazi (RA). Information regarding the life of Shah Sikander is very meagre. according to local traditions, he was drowned in the Surma river while crossing it by a boat. Hence his grave is not found. But he is even today,, remembered by the local people, especially by the fishermen. 

They believe that Shah Sikander is still living under the water and distribute fishes to the fisher -men. A section of people of Badarpur claimed to be his descendants. A mosque erected by Shah Sikander at village Gorekafan in Badarpur can still be seen. Some people says that his tomb is situated at Saftamgram. He was undoubtedly a follower of Shah Jalal Mujarrad and his close association with the saint greatly helped his missionary activities.
Sylhet, the Capital of the Surma Valley formerly in Assam, now in BangladeshA man named Burhanud-Din settled there and made a vow that he would sacrifice a cow if a son was born to him. A son was born and in pursuance of his vow, a cow that was sacrificed to celebrate the birth of his newborn baby without realising it could offend the Hindu Kingdom who adore the cow as their mother. Which incurred the displeasure of the Raja Gor Govind, who sent for Burhanud-Din family and took them to the task. He killed their son in front of his parents, the baby's head was cut off from the body and by his order, Burhanud-Din and his wife right arm were chopped off. Burhan Uddin's wife died of profuse bleeding from her wound. He managed to survived and went on across the border to the sultanate of Delhi or Lakhnauti and submitted the prayer to the Sultan Shamsuddin Firoz Shah and pleaded for mercy. On receipt of the news of his barbarous act, a contingent of the army under Sikandar Shah marched against Gor Govind but the army was defeated by the raja

At about the same time a renowned saint, Hazrat Shah Jalal ‘Mujarred’ of Yemen (Arabia), was on his way to towards Sylhet at the instance of his spiritual guide at Mecca. When he was in Delhi Hazrat Nizamud-Din Aulia invited him to stay with him. When he left Delhi 
Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya gave him two pairs of rarer dark colour pigeons, the species of which is still found in Sylhet and Cachar districts and is called Jalali pigeon (Jalali kobutor).

He met the army of Sikandar Shah returning, having been defeated by Raja Gaur Govind. By this time Hazrat Shah Jalal followers had increased in number from 313 to 360. He persuaded Sikandar Shah to make another attempt on Sylhet. "I am come to destroy the villain to establish Islam, so you Sylhet-victory may come with me if you want to do." A fresh battle ensued and Gaur Govind was defeat, and Sylhet fell to the combined army. Hazrat Shah Jalal entered Sylhet and settled there with all his followers. The first act of Mujahid, was to hoist the green flag of Islam with the Crescent and Star on it on the Hindu Commander-in-Cheif's castle on the hill.

Many of respectable Muslims of Sylhet are descendants of Hazrat Shah Jalal's 360 followers, who settled all over the districts of Assam and Bengal. The graveyard of the saint, Hazrat Shah Jalal, is looked upon as a holy place of pilgrimage which is visited every day by hundreds of people both Muslims and non-Muslims.

Sylhet was also known as the Silhat sil (stone) hat (marketSilhatta  It was an independent Kingdom Srihatta Rajya in the 12th century. In the late medieval period of India it was ruled by a chieftain Gour Gobinda under the Gaur Kingdom and predominately inhabited by the tribal people of Mongoloid origin. Govinda or Gobinda himself was from a Tribe called ‘Tepra’ of Tripura, the state of  India in Southeast Asia. Later in 1947, Sylhet became a part of East Pakistan as a result of a referendum and then consequently Bangladesh in 1971 and also left behind three districts namely CacharKarimganj and Hailakandi with Assam
the State of IndiaBangladesh Liberation War

I composed a song that based on a journey of my ancestor's history passing within the family by the generation to generations in and around Greater Sylhet of Bangladesh. The greatest historical mighty family existence brought the nameShaharpara where Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan (RA) arrived by boat with his Arabian wife, three sons, one daughter and twelve Sufi saints from Mecca in Saudi ArabiaPersia via Bihar state of the India.

According to the instruction of the monarch Hazrat Shah_Jalal_(R) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) his journey ended up in periphery of west Tilak (the tilak-mark of Kings) by the riverbank of Ratna nodi, Jagannathpur UpazilaSunamganj DistrictBangladesh, since its land became Shahar Para Shaharpara Shah (King) ar (belonging) par or parr (riverbankShah (King) ar (belongs) para (Neighbourhood), 

Shah (King) ar (belongs) parr (riverbank) or Shafahar (Shah's embankment) or Shah's residence or even Shah's inhabitants or Shah's footstep, Shah's neighbourhood ''SHAHARPARA'' (Royal Neighbourhoods) approximately three acres of high-rise land the colour of the soil is a different color than the surroundings earth where the dirt matched with the adequate colour given by his maternal as well as being a paternal uncle the Sultan Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) which concluded his final destination and then he founded a MosquemadrasahEidgah, Saathduaree or saathduari (seven doors) for Meditation and a Khanqah (where people from all walks of life and faiths were feeds, Sufi Hospice also performed Sufi forms of dhikrmeditation and celebration of the divine). On the site's there is a prayer stone of Hazrat Shah Kamal (RA) which is still preserved with his arms and footprints. 

Sunanganj district was underwater in the ancient time; It was part of a vast sea by the name of Ratnag, which was an abbreviation of Ratnakar (common noun for sea in Bengali: Ratnakar expanded from cliffs of Meghalaya on the west to the coast of Tripura in the east, both Meghalaya and Tripura were inhabited by Kirata people of Mongaloid race. People from Meghalaya travelled to Tripura and vice versa by seagoing vessels. Seabed began to rise by the end of twelfth century CE due to alluvial silting over the centuries. It was northeast of the district that first began to elevate in form of atolls and then most parts of the district arose from underneath the sea. 
(Picture of Shaharpara Shah Kamal high school and the National Martyr Memorial in Kunabone (corner paddy field) Raj-ails road or Shah Kamal Road or Mukam Road off Shaharpara main road, links to Syedpur-Shaharpara-Union office, the national historical heritage sites of DhakaDhaka DivisionChittagongChittagong DivisionKhulnaKhulna DivisionRajshahiRajshahi DivisionRangpurRangpur DivisionBarisalBarisal Division, Greater SylhetSylhet DivisionFaridpurIndian subcontinentSoutheast Asia, in ShaharparaJagannathpurSunamganjSylhetBangladesh).

Mukam-bari or Maqam meaning is the home of Sufi saint (Auliya) the khanqah where 
Hazrat Shah Kamal Quhafa (RA) spends rest of his life preaching Abrahamic faiths of monotheism "God is One" performed dhikr or Zikr[ðɪkr, ʔæðˈkɑːr]), is an Islamic devotional act, typically involving the recitationmostly silentlyof the Names of God, (Allah) meditation, celebration of divine and where he had finally rested. 

He was buried in the Dargah (shrines) besides is his Arabian wife and behind him is his most beloved younger son Sultan Shah Jamal-ud-Din Qureshi. Outside the Dargah Sharif just immediate west of the Dargah where the shrine of his elder son Sultan Shah Jalal-ud-Din Qureshi and east of his Eidgah. Before his death in the late fourteenth century

He had been separated some lands for Khadim family as a gift for their service. They are from the Khadmorbari of Shaharpara. The meaning of the name Khadim is'one who served Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan with the great bond of love and devotion.

(seasonal flooding picture of Ratna nodi which transformed the mighty majestic landscape into the water World where each house looks like an island, crossing view of Eastside riverbank and Kunabone (corner paddy field) periphery of west Tilak behind Danis-mansion of Shahrong-bari also spelled Sarang-bari where the Nawab Ali Amjad Khan sent his messenger with an elephant to invite Danis Shahrong also spelled Danis Sarang (Captain of a Ship) and recruit Bengali lascar (seaman) for Brittish ship as well as pay their salary, for a special visit to Prithimpassa Nawab-bari at the end of the nineteenth century, which he refused. West side riverbank front of School-bari via Nagarkana. Mirpur Shah Kamal Islamia madrasah
of Shaharpara nowadays remains as a canal, the national historical heritage sites of NabiganjKamalganjHabiganjJamalganjKanaighatKishoreganjNarayanganjSirajganjNetrokonaBaniyachongMymensinghNarayanganjBagerhatPabnaCacharSilcharKorean,JapanCroatianAlgeria).

The reasons for the special invitation to Danis Shahrong were, once in Kolkata, Ali Amjad wore casual clothes and with the bodyguards went to a saree shop to buy a Sari. The shopkeeper showed him some cheap saris which he didn't like so instead he pointed out an expensive shelf full of sari’s which he wanted the shopkeeper to show him. 

The shopkeeper said, “You can’t afford these saris, they are very expensive.” Ali Amjad repeated to the shopkeeper to show the sari's from the expensive shelf. When the shopkeeper looked at Ali Amjad’s dress, he replied, “This is not for you, it’s too expensive for you to buy.” Ali Amjad was humiliated by his clothes and the shopkeeper said to leave the shop immediately. 

There were people watching as Ali Amjad went to the next shop and asked the shopkeeper if there were any powerful Sylheti people living in the area. The shopkeeper said, “I can only think of one person whose name is Danis Shahrong, he can help you in this situation.” Ali Amjad then went to Danis Shahrong and said I am from Sylhet and then explained the situation to him. 

Danis Shahrong couldn't recognise him as a rich man so he asked him, “Do you have enough money?” In answer to this question, Ali Amjad asked his bodyguards to show Danis Shahrong the money so they (the bodyguards) showed him two sacks of money. Ali Amjad asked if that was enough money

Danis Shahrong said it was enough money to buy the shop and the shopkeeper! Ali Amjad replied saying, “That was what I wanted.” When they returned to the shop, the shopkeeper saw Danis Shahrong and became scared. The manager greeted Danis Shahrong and Ali Amjad. This time Danis Shahrong asked the price of the shop as well as the shopkeeper

The manager replied saying, “We only sell goods, not the shop or its salesman.” Danis Shahrong said to put all the saris in the middle of the road. So they emptied the shop and put all the saris there. Then Danis Sarang poured petrol on these goods and lit a fire onto the saris, pointed to Ali Amjad and said, “He is the Nawab Ali Amjad Khan of Eastern Bengal.” 

Hazrat Shah Kamal Quhafahl or Qahafan, Quhafa, Quhafani, Qattan, Qattani, Qahtani, Qahtan, QahtaniQahtaniiQahtan derives from its founder Adnan ancestor of the Adnanite as well as ''Arab'' descent from Adnan to Prophet Muhammad who established the Rashidun Caliphate. Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan was a progeny of Adnan commonly known as Hazrat Shah Kamal descendant of
Hazrat Khwaja Shah Burhan-Ud-Din Quhafa, (RA) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) commonly known as Hazrat Khwaja Burhanuddin Qahtan or Qattal Shah who was a offspring of Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) (Radhiyallaho Anho) was born in Mecca some time in 573 CE, to a rich family in the Banu Taym[18] clan of the Quraysh tribe

Abu Bakr's father's name was Uthman Abu Quhafa (nicknamed Abu Quhafa) and his mother was Salma Umm-ul-Khair (nicknamed Umm-ul-Khair).  

The lineage of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq joined that of Hazrat Muhammad in the eighth degree in their common ancestor Murrah ibn Ka'b.

570 CE – Muhammad  545 CE –   Abd Allah 497 CE – Abd al-Muttalib 464 CE  Hashim 439 CE – `Abd Manaf 406 CE – Qusai 373 CE –Kilab 340 CE Murrah 307 CE – Ka'ab 274 CE – Lu'ayy 241 CE – Ghalib 208 CE – Fihr 175 CE – Malik 142 CE – an-Nadr 109 CE – Kinanah 76 CE – Khuzaimah 43 CE Mudrikah 10 CE – Elias 23 BCE – Mudar 56 BCE – Nizar 89 BCE – Ma'ad 122 BCE – Adnan.
The lineage of Abu Bakr was: Abu Bakr; the son of Uthman Abu Quhafa; the son of Amar; the son of Umru; the son of Kaab; the son of Saad; the son of Taym; the son of Murrah.

The lineage of Muhammad was: Muhammad; the son of Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib; the son of Abdul Muttalib; the son of Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf; the son of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai; the son of Qusai ibn Kilab; the son of Kilab ibn Murrah; the son of Murrah.[18]

Abu Bakr was a thin man with white skin.[19] Tabari relates (Suyuti also relates the same through Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's report) from Aisha her description of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq

The First Tomb in Islam
(Early Illustration)
a. Prophet’s mihrab 
b. Aisha b. Abu Bakr’s RA residence
c. Hafsa b. Umar’s RA residence
d. Zainab b. Jahsh’s RA residence (not pictured)
e. Zainab b. Kuzayma’s RA) residence (not pictured)
f. Fatima’s RA residence (not pictured)
g. Baab-Uthman b. Affan RA
h. Ahlul Suffa Residence
i. Juwayriya’s RA residence (not pictured)
j. Rumla’s RA residence (not pictured)
k. Saffiya’s RA residence (not pictured)
l. Baab-ul-Rahma
m. Abu Bakr’s RA residence
n. Sa’d b. Abi Waqaas RA residence (not pictured)
o. al-Abbas b. Abdul Muttalib RA (Prophet’s SAWS uncle) residence
p. Jafar b. Abi Sadiq RA residence
Source: The Madinah Research & Study Centre, Al Madinah Al Munawara

The Blessed Grave of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is "INSIDE" room of the house of Ayesha (ra)

The Second Tomb in Islam
Grave of Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) is in a room of the house of Ayesha (ra) buried next to Prophet (Peace be upon him)

The Third Tomb in Islam
Grave of Sayyidna Umar Ibnul Khattab (ra) is in a room of the house of Ayesha (ra) buried next to Prophet (Peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr (ra)
So it was a practice of Sahaba to bury Prophet (PBUH) and Caliphs not openly but inside a Room or in other words a "CONSTRUCTED SHRINE"

Nowadays the offspring's of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) can be found in the four corners of the World.

Hazrat Khwaja Burhan-ud-Din Qahtan Quhafa (RA), was a great commander as well as being the greatest companion and  Brother-in-law who shared a haplotype of the Messianic Sufi Saint of Bangladesh  Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) administrator of Jalalabad (spiritual town Sylhet) (king of Greater Sylhet) and he was descended from AdnanArab invasion

(Picture of the Sultan (KingHazrat Shah Jalal shrine & mosque entrance after Friday Prayers, the national prehistory heritage sites of IndiaPersiaArabsArabiaSaudiIranTurkey, Northern Sudan, EthiopiaAfghanistan

LebanonIraqQatarJordanPalestineDjiboutiEgyptUnited Arab EmiratesSomaliArabArabianMultanYemenTurkishBangladeshManipurMongoliaPakistanIslamabadMehrgarhSindhiLahoreKabulPeshawarDelhiKarachiKashmirCacharRussiaOdishaSyriaAfricaMoroccoMaharashtraChinaSingaporeCalcuttaHyderabadSindhBruneiAsiaIstanbulHadramawtIslamic heroKachariMedina in Dargah Mahallah Sylhet). 

source of shuhel-e-yamani By Barbara Daly. Metcalf, published by -Princeton University press. 2009. Page 385 [1] 

Hazrat Khwaja Shah Burhanuddin Qahtan (RA), led an expedition to Chittagong accompanied by Hazrat Shah Badruddin (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), under the instruction and leadership of the monarch Hazrat Makhdum Shah Jalal ad-Din al-Mujarrad (bachelor) bin Mahmoud al-Yemeni (rah) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) (born king remains lifelong bachelor). 

He was a son of Muslim clericHazrat Muhammad bin Ibrahim Qureshi (rah) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), or Shaykh Mahmoud bin Mohammed Ibrahim, a member of the Quraish clan of Yemen, who was a contemporary

of the Persian poet and Sufi Saint, Hazrat Mowlana Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi (RA) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu). And his mother’s name was Fatima Saida (Saiyida also spelled Syeda) Hasina who was a descendant of the great Imam Hazrat Imam Hussain (RA) (Radi Allahu Anhu). His maternal uncle, Hazrat Saiyid Ahmad Kabir Suhrawardi (RA), nourished him on the milk of cattleHazrat Imam Husayn (RA) Shrine.
Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan had three sons, namely Hazrat Shah Jalal-ud-Din Qureshi or Hazrat Shah Jalal Uddin Qureshi or Hazrat Shah Jalal-Ud-Din Qureshi (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), commonly known as  Boro Miyāh or Mian Sahib (Royal Highness) (eldest), Hazrat Shah Muazzam-ud-Din Qureshi or Hazrat Shah Muazzam Uddin Qureshi (RA) or Hazrat Shah Moazzamuddin Qureshi (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), commonly known as Maizla Miyāh or Mian Sahib (Royal Highness) (second) and Hazrat Shah Jamal-ud-Din Qureshi or Hazrat Shah Jamal Uddin Qureshi or Hazrat Shah Jamaluddin Qureshi (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), commonly known as Choto Miyāh or Mian Sahib
(Royal Highness) (youngest).
After the conquest of Sylhet in 1303 by Muslims militant and aid of 360 Sufi Saints under the spiritual guidance of the messianic Muslim saint Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) the first Muslim Sultan (king) legacy of the Quraysh clan the tribe of Arab conquered and ruled over the Greater-Sylhet as well as the authenticity of Islam
Royal legacy arrived in Sylhet city of Bangladesh  by the Royal descent of Arabs Islamic empire
In the ancient period, Sunamganj was part of the Rarh Kingdom or Lour Kingdom that included western part of Sylhet, Habiganj, Netrokona, Kishoreganj and the northern part of MymensinghHazrat Shah Kamal Quhafah (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) brought the entire Kingdom of Larh also spelled La'urh kingdom or Loud Kingdom or Laur Kingdom or Lour Kingdom or Laor Kingdom or Lauar Kingdom under his control within a decade with the aid of his twelve disciples and state of (Iqlim-e-Muazzamabad), which was established by the Sultan Hazrat Shah Moazzamuddin Qureshi (RA) or Hazrat Shah Muazzam Uddin Qureshi (RA) and ruled the entire State from Shaharpara in the early 14th century CE. 

Between the latter part of 1300 CE and 1765 CE, the present-day Sunamganj also spelled Sunamonj district was a part of Iqlim-e-Muazzamabad, i.e. the state of Muazzamabad Eastern Bengal, which was an independent state until 1612 and, thereafter, it was conquered by the mighty Mughal of Delhi

In the late medieval period of India once the Baniachang town was the capital of the ancient Lour Kingdom. History Banyachung constituted the grand estate (zamindari) of Anwar Khan, who was looked upon as a raja by the local people and the British regarded the raja of Banyachong as the only zamindar in Sylhet Division and other zamindars were regarded as mere taluquedars (pretty landholders). Estate of Banyachang was so vast it Crisscrossed all districts of Sylhet region as well as the greater MymensinghDhaka and Comilla

(Shrines of Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan (RA) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) the Dervish and the Wali of Allah (swt), besides is his Arabian wife and behind him is his most beloved younger son Sultan Hazrat Shah Jamal-ud-Din Qureshi (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), commonly known as Choto MiyāSahib, the national historical heritage sites of BangladeshSunamganjJagannathpurSudanBalaganjMalaysiaOsmani NagarTahirpurBishwanathMaulviBazarSreemangalJharkhandKashmirPunjabYemenSomaliaMalaysiaCambodiaGolapganjBirminghamBurmaEthiopiaIndonesiaJakartaEgyptiansJamaicaNigeriaRomeAfricaItalyKachari kingdom, in Shaharpara proper from the 14th century CE).

In accordance with the parganas system introduced by Murshid Quli Khan in 1722, Anwar Khan claimed tenure of 28 parganas of Muazzamabad, but his claim was rejected after an investigation by the revenue office, as these parganas belong to the posterity of Shah Muazzam Uddin Qureshi, who assumed the name of Muazzam Khan when he ascended the throne of Muazzamabad. 

Hence, these 28 parganas: Banshikunda (Vamshikunda), Ranadigha, Shelvarsh, Sukhaid, Bétaal, Palash, Laxmanshree, Chamtala, Pagla (Paragala), Dohaliya, Bazu Jatua, Sinchapaid, Shafahar (Shaharpara), Sik Sonaita (Sonaita), Atuajan (Atuajahan), Aagaon, Kuwazpur, Joar Baniachung, Kasba Baniachung, Jalsuka, Bithangal, Joanshahi, Mudaikaid (Mudaikaid), Kuresha, Jantari (Yantri), Haveli Sonaita, Satar Sati and Paikuda, were allotted to new landholders that created numerous zamindars and taluqdars in former Muazzamabad (districts of Sunamganj and Habiganj). 

The history of the battle between Anwar Khan and his brother Hussain Khan (Bara Bhuiyans of Baniachang) with the Mughal army in the first decade of the seventeen century is found in the Baharistan-i-Gayebi

Zamindars of Baniachung was renowned for their generosity, but the last zamindar was more than generous; he was well known for his gullibility and his aged but adept and calculating servants such as dewans and chaudharies swindled him left, right and centre. By the time of the retirementdewans and chauddharies working for Banyachung zamindar ended up holding more lands than the zamindar himself. 

(Picture of Shah Kamal mosque (place of worship) where the Soil matched then he built the first Khanqahmosque & Eidgah in the early 14th century CE, in Shaharpara proper the national prehistorical heritage sites of SufismSufisaintsIslamOdishaIndiaPersiaAustralia. Al MadinahArabBangladeshRussiansMoscowAustraliaPhilippinesKuwaitBahrainQatarTripuraAgartalaBiharPatnaChunarughat in Shaharpara proper).

This was achieved through a severance scheme conjured up by a shrewd dewan; this scheme made the zamindar honour-bound to grant land (taluque) to his servants on retirement and there were two categories of taluqdar: (i) Khaisa and (ii) Mujrahi, aka Mujrai. The first category of taluque, i.e. Khalisa, was reserved for the male servants and the second category of taluque, i.e. Mujrai, was reserved for zamindar's courtesans. This scheme ruined the zamindary of Baniyachung within very short span of time and created numerous Khalisadar and Mujraidar in the region, who nowadays style themselves as Chowdhury in Sylhet region. 

(An imagining of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) stopping the Meccan Mob, in a Turkish miniature from the 16th century CE).

Muazzamabad sees mint towns (medieval)  
Rare silver tanka of Sikandar Shah 1 (1353-1389 AD), coin of Muazzamabad
mintBengal Sultanate India.

Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan (RA) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), was a direct descendant of the first Caliph of Rashidun Caliphate "Rightly Guided" Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radiallahu 'anhu) was the ruler of Rashidun Caliphate and was the successor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (Sallahu alaihi wassalam) the King of Kings. Through Hazrat Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, who was the eldest son of Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) (may Allah be pleased with him). Lineage and Title of Abu Bakr's full name were 'Abd Allah ibn 'Uthman ibn Aamir ibn Amr ibn Ka'ab ibn Sa'ad ibn Taym (from whom the at-Taymi al-Quraishi) ibn Murrah ibn Ka'ab ibn Lu'ai ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr al-Quraishi.[6] In Arabic, the name 'Abd Allah' means "servant of Allah". 

One of his early titles, preceding his conversion to Islam, was atiqe, "the saved one". Muhammad later reaffirmed this title when he said that Abu Bakr is the 'atiqe' (the one saved from hell fire by God).[7] He was called 'Al-Siddiq' (the truthful')[2] by Muhammad after he believed him in the event of Isra and Mi'raj when other people didn't, and Ali confirmed that title several times.[8]

He was mentioned in the Quran as the "second of the two who lay in the cave" in reference to the event of hijra, with Muhammad where they hid in the cave in Jabal Thawr from the Meccan search party that was sent afters them, thus being one of few who was given direct reference to in the Quran.[9]
Imam Jafar al-Sadiq famously narrated how the title Siddiq was given to Abu Bakr from Muhammad.[10][11] He was also a direct descendant of Abu Bakr from his maternal side, as well as being a paternal descendant of Ali from his father's side. Jafar al-Sadiq was also the successor of the Naqshbandi Sufi order originating from Abu Bakr himself.[12][13][14][15][16]

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, the father of Imam Jafar Sadiq also called Abu Bakr with the title Siddiq.[17] Imam Jafar al Sadiq famously narrated how the title Siddiq was given to Abu Bakr from 
Muhammad.[10][11] He was also a direct descendant of Abu Bakr from his maternal side, as well as being a paternal descendant of Ali from his father's side. Jafar al-Sadiq was also the successor of the Naqshbandi Sufi order originating from Abu Bakr himself.[12][13][14][15][16] Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, the father of Imam Jafar Sadiq also called Abu Bakr with the title Siddiq.[17

Posterity of Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan (RA) (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), have mainly extended to five legendary families of Jagannathpur, SunamganjSylhetBangladesh and along Shaharpara has three families one of which is known as Mullah family commonly known as Mullah Goshty descended from Sultan Shah Jalal-ud-Din Qureshi who was a chief justice of Muazzamabad. Mullah means theologian or cleric and Mullahbadi was the home of scholars of the State of Muazzamabad. Shahzir Goshty descended from Sultan Shah Muazzam-ud-Din Qureshi. ''Shah'' means King and ji is a postfixes indicating of respect; therefore, Shah + ji = Shahji and Shahjibadi was the home of the reigning king (Sultan) of MuazzamabadBaglar family commonly known as Bogla Goshty or Baglar Goshti descended from Sultan Shah Jamal-ud-Din Qureshi who was a commander-in-chief and also was a chief chancellor. ''Baglar'' means wealth jewel or treasure or financial centre of Muazzamabad. 

(Picture of Mirpur Shah Kamal Islamia Madrasah of Shaharpara the national historical heritage sites of DeraiChhatakJharkhandAssamGuwahatiDispurSilcharKarimganjTripuraPanduaMumbaiJharkhandAgraAjmiriganjCacharAzimabadKabulRajasthanMaharashtr in Shaharpara).

Baglarbadi (the Indians used to pronounce their "d's" as "r's" however when the word began with "D" they pronounced it whereas the Bengali's pronounce it as "bari") was the home of the treasury of Muazzamabad. The Qureshi family in Patli established by Hazrat Mawlānā Shah Shams-ud-Din Qureshi (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) or Hazrat Maulana Shah Shams Uddin Qureshi offspring of Hazrat Shah Jalal-ud-Din Qureshi (RA) they are commonly known as Qureshis of Patli and Hazrat Mawlānā Shah Zia-ud-Din Qureshi mufti (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi),or Hazrat Maulana Shah Zia Uddin mufti who established the Mufti family in Dargah Mahallah they are commonly known as Mufti of Sylhet they are the pedigree of Sultan Shah Jalal-ud-Din Qureshi.

(The original Mausoleum has been destroyed of the Sultan of aqli-e-mua'zzam abad or Iqlim-i-Muazzamabad (largest state) by the historical flood and earthquake of 1897 CE, also damaged the establishment of Shaharpara. The Muslim meaning of graveyard is everlasting or last home address is the kobor (grave). The shrine of Sultan Hazrat Shah Moazzam-ud-Din Qureshi (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), on the bank of Bhuiyair-barir Kal or khal. Bhuiya
(lord of the soil or land-lords) ir (belongs) Barir (home) Kal or khal (canal), Bhuiyair-barir Kal, from the end of 14th century CE. The Bhuyarbari which was the revenue collection office of the State of Muazzamabad. Muftirchawk or Muftir Chowk was an estate where muftis (lawyers) of Muazzamabad residents and then after the fall of Muazzamabad it was given to Mufti Da'eem Uddin Qureshi also spelled Mufti Dayeem Uddin Qureshi of Mullahgoshti whose elder son, Maulana Shah Zia-ud-Din Qureshi or Maulana Zia Uddin Qureshi of Dargah Mahalla, was a philanthropist, who founded the very first school in Sylhet. Later Shahzirgoshti bought the estate of Muftir Chawk and now some of their clan members are lives there. Mufti (interpreter of Muslim law) r (belongs) Chawk (Isle) ''mufti) means Jurist and Muftir Chawk was the home of lawyers of the Muazzamabad, on the bank of Bhuiyair-barir Khal (presently the geography change and the canal transformed into a road approximately after seven hundred years later in the beginning of twenty-first century links to Raj-ails road also called Shah Kamal Road or Mukam Road or Dargah Sharif Road off Syedpur Shaharpara union national Road). The administrator of (Iqlim-e-muazzamabad) of Sunamganj Sylhet, the national historical heritage sites of ancient Jagannathpur, ancient Sylhet, ancient Sunamganj, ancient Assam, ancient Tripuraancient India, ancient Arabs, ancient Persia, ancient Afghans, AfghanistanIndian subcontinent in Shaharpara Muftir)
In an eclectic thought of the clan members formed very distinguished families that known as Kamalies of Shaharpara, Qureshis of Pati and mufti of SylhetQureshiQuraishiKhwajaShahSiddiquimufti and Kamaly or Kamali are the Surnames variably used by the descendants of Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan (RA) ancestor of Shaharpara

Kamaly (or Kamali) is the most recent title in the early twentieth century which was made for bringing the posterity of Hazrat Shah Kamal (RA) Sahib under one title after the death of Danis Shahrong at Shahrong-bari on forty Days Shinni. Approximately around 1916 AD, Akbar Ali (master) was born 1902-1985-and was a student from School-bari- proposed to the title Kamali (or Kamaly). In Shaharpara no one uses any titles but they do use the clan names.

However, people from Syedpur use the title Syed cropped from their ancestor Hazrat Syed Shams-Ud-Din (RA) Sahib. So why don’t we cropped the title from our ancestor Hazrat Shah Kamal (RA) Sahib Kamaly or Kamali as one title? Nowadays the title is used by anybody of Shaharpara and now it means that the people from Shaharpara but not every one of the title holder is posterity of Hazrat Shah Kamal (RA) Sahib. Even today the best way to find out the authentic descendant of Hazrat Shah Kamal (RA) Sahib is by their clan name.

Out of the three historian families of Shaharpara, JagannathpurSunamganjBangladesh, one of them is Bogla Goshty (part of the clan popularly known for wearing white clothes), characteristics of the aristocracy or purity of Islam's royal legacy of Shaharpara Sylhet. The orthodox Muslim family house historical Bogla-bari (treasury home of Muazzamabad) where the original ruling class of the nobility started from the early fourteenth century.

(Picture of Shah Kamal Eidgah (place for Eid Prayer) from the early 14th century CE, the national historical heritage sites of Shaharpara, Bhadeswar, NoakhaliJessoreComillaJordanIstanbulBahrainMeccaMedinaSaudi ArabiaArabAjmerBombayIslamabad, in Shaharpara proper).     

The reigning Sultan of "Muazzamabad" Hazrat Shah Muazzam-ud-Din Qureshi's residential home "Shahjirbari" which was the home of the king where the noble family originated from the early fourteenth century. Shahzirbari from which the residential home "Shahjirgosti" is derived which is also the clan name. The northern part of "Shahjirbari" is called "Mullahbari" and was the home of many theologians, clerics, jurists and scholars of "Muazzamabad" state from which is the residential home "Mullahgosti" the name is derived which is also the clan name. Eastern side of Mullah-bari is a Minza-bari minza (mint) bari (home) which was the home of mint: a place where money is coined, the mint city of Muazzamabad which is located in the Kamalshahi, capital of Muazzamabad.

The southern area "Baglarbari" was the financial centre of "Muazzamabad" state. East of Baglarbari there was a Boro (big) Bazaar and opposites of boro bazaar there are Bhuiyar-bari where was the revenue collection office of muazzamabad. The first part of the noble family approximately moved to the residence in the early fourteenth century "Boglabari" and the name is derived from its residential home "Boglagosti" being the clan of the treasury home of "Muazzamabad". 

The history of Shaharpara is similar to the clan of the Quraysh tribe the tribes of Arabia. The second parting and separation of the noble family were approximately between in the late fifteenth to the early sixteenth centuries. The family was now divided. Later the noble family extended from "Shahjirbari" to "Mufftir Chawk" (isle of lawyers of Muazzamabad) in Shaharpara between in the late fifteenth to sixteenth centuries. From "Mullahgosty" part of the family moved to Sylhet they are known as Muftis of Sylhet. The Mullahgosti extended to Qureshi family of Patli in the late eighteenth century.  

Once more the noble Baglar family split into three more parts; one part of the family moved to the west of "Boglabari" (two) in the early eighteenth century which is the Land of Mirpur mouza. The second part of the family moved to Mirpur mouza of Shaharpara pargana. Mirpur mouza which is derived from its founder Mir Khan minister of Muazzamabad state

Commander-in-chief Paragal Khan son of Sufi & commander Shahrasti or Shah Rasti Khan or Rasti Shah Khan or Rasti Khan also he was the Administrator of Chittagong (Majlish-i-Ala) during the reign of Ruknuddin barbak shah (1459-1474). Paragal Khan from jagirdar bari (home) A jagir (Devanagari : जागीर, Persian : جاگیر, ja- meaning "place", -gir meaning "keeping, holding") A jagir was technically a feudal life estate, as the grant lawfully reverted to the monarch upon the feudal superior's death. However, in practice, jagirs became hereditary by primogeniture.

The recipient of the jagir (termed a jagirdar) was the de facto ruler of the territory and was able to earn income from tax revenues and had magisterial authority. The jagirdar would typically reside at the capital to serve as a Minister, typically appearing twice a day before the monarch. Jagirdar bari is immediately next door to the Bogla-bari which is the southern-side the land of "Mirpur mouza". Feudal lord Paragal Khan also spelled Poragol Khan who abducted a princess with his wind's speed horse (poboner ghura) from  "Lau'rh" or "Laur Kingdom" or "Loud Kingdom" or "Lour Kingdom" or "Lauar Kingdom".

Once the Baniachang town was the capital of the ancient Lour Kingdom. Laur (Loud or Lour) or Rarh Kingdom or Lau'rh kingdom in the Sunamganj, subdivision of Shrihatta district in Eastern Bengal, to marriage. Paragal Khan was renowned for his pride. His eighteen sons have died included himself at the Eidgah during the prayer (Namaz) at the first Sajdah, due to the harsh weather at the Eid salaah of the Eidgah of Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan.

There weren't enough local people to conduct the prayer of Eid at the Eidgah and the imperial kettledrum (Domkha) of Muazzamabad sounding the beats of congregations. Paragal Khan, a governor of Eastern Bengal under Sultan Ala-ud-din husain shah (reign 1493-1519 or 1494-1519). Ala-ud-din husain shah gave him abundant landed property and precious gifts as well as golden dress after the invasion of Chittagong in 1512 AD.

Paragal Khan full of pride via his family status wanted to perform the namaz of Eid by himself as Imam with his eighteen sons at the first Sajadh (bow down) but the ruler of Eastern Bengal Paragal Khan, included his eighteen sons death and were buried in the mass grave just west of Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan mosque, immediate east of Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan Eidgah in between 1513-1532 AD. 
Paragal Khan excavated many tanks Dighis (ponds) in Shaharpara Mirpur as well as Jagannathpur. The first Bengali translation of the Mahabharata was completed under the patronage of the Eastern Bengal rulers, Paragal Khan and his son Chuti Khan or Chhoto Khan or Chhuti Khan. 

(Picture caption of mass grave of Paragal Khan included his eighteen sons, immediate west of Hazrat Shah Kamal Mosque, photograph were taken from the angle of southern west corner side of the grave and the northern side is Saatduaree (seven doors) for meditation nowadays five doors left and two doors sank into the ground and northern side Dargah Sharif of Hazrat Shah Kamal (RA) Sahib in Shaharpara. Saathduari was built in the late medieval period by Hazrat Shah Kamal (RA) Sahib besides the Khangah (Sufi Hospice). 

Folklore of Paragal Khan married to a Ragkoshni (cannibalism of Devil woman) in the greater area of Shaharpara in Silhat of Assam province in India.

The ruler of north-eastern Bengal Muazzamabad (present-day Sunamganj) and south-eastern Bengal (present-day Chittagong). Paragal Khan in the end of fifteen century went deer hunting in the jungle of Langla in Silhat (present-day Sylhet Division). He started the journey from his homeland “Shaharpara” Sunamganj Subdivision of Sylhet which was under the constitutions of Assam province in India

The journey was done by the royal boat and accompanied by many rowers as well as his bodyguards with many of his best archers. When they arrived in the jungle of Langla the ruler of Eastern Bengal (Paragal Khan) was wondering around the jungle for deer and when he saw a beautiful mature young woman. She looked almost naked just covered her front part of the body by long hair. She was sitting down under a tree shades and crying the tears of sadness. 

He was shocked to see a woman in that manner so he quickly gives his headdress or turban or Pagri (an eighteen feet’s long cloth wrapped around the head of men) to cover her private parts of the body morally. She said “thank you for the moral support. I am wondering around to escapes from this accursed jungle since my childhood.” Then Paragal Khan asked her “why are you here in the first place?” She said “I don’t know, all I knew I came to picnic with my parent when I was a little girl and got lost which separated me from my family. 

Since then, I have been out of contact of mankind and got lost from the civilised society of the human world.” Paragal Khan said “would you go if someone asked you to take you to his home?” She replied “I have been waiting for somebody just like you and wishing for very long time for that Day to come. As if someone rescues me back to the humanised world.” Paragal Khan commanded his peoples to start the journey back home to Shaharpara. Instead of deer hunting, he hunted a very pretty young woman. Paragal Khan introduces the gorgeous young woman to his mum and explains the situation. 

The mother was astonished by her beauty of charms as well as the sadness of her sorrow so that she proudly pronounces her mother and decided to make her daughter-in-law. By the conclusion of his mother, he was overwhelmed and happily got married to the beautiful princess of the Langla jungle. Now the greater area of Shaharpara loses its livestock Day by Day: GoatsSheepCowsBuffalosHorses and elephant too are missing. Behind their back garden where they throw the garbage and extra food every day that was also a clean place, the west side of the home. 

In the monsoon (a rainy season) the mother-in-law asked her sweet gorgeous daughter-in-law to wash clean and pile up the betel leaves and also she said “asks the servant to bring the banana leaves to wrap the betel leaves (paan).” Just as she’s turning her back she saw in the blink of an eye, was the extended hand of the daughter-in-law going through the window (janala) to fetch the banana leaf within few seconds. After the glimpse, she didn't look back or say anything to the daughter-in-law but she mentioned that to Paragal Khan. Following night Paragal Khan pretended he was sleeping like any other night. Around midnight she woke up and started checking on him to find out if he is sleeping or not. 

Then she took the bodna or lota (water pot for anal cleansing) pretending she’s going to the loo and opens the main back door. He secretly starts following her, she looks back and around to locate if anyone is watching her from behind or from a far distance. Once she leaves the verandah to the back courtyard, she starts growing taller and taller. Once she’s away from the back courtyard outside of west home border going away to the field. The beauty became a devil woman and almost as tall as a mature Palm tree. He quietly watched the act of the devil from his home border. 

The hungry terrifying evil woman began to hunt in the middle of the animals’ grazing field by the periphery of their west-side home. The devil found a water buffalo which she tortured and ate alive including the bones within few minutes and after that went to search for more animals. After he watched the event of horror, he quickly came back home and pretended to be the way he was sleeping before. When the devil stomach was full of food then she transformed to the normal woman and returned home with the bodna (water pot for anal cleansing) and went to sleep very quickly. 

Paragal Khan couldn't go to sleep, he kept thinking of what happened, so she was the one who caused the missing animals from the greater area of Shaharpara. But she’s also pregnant, what will happen to the unborn baby? How could he solve this matter and save the family from cannibalism? In the morning finally, he came up with the idea to solve the problem which created himself. She woke up in the morning and saw Paragal Khan wasn't in the room he was having the breakfast by the Ghat (series of steps links to deeper water) by the front pond east-side of his home but he had a sad expression on his face.

Where she gave a beautiful smile to her loving husband and said “why are you looking sad?” Nearby by the pond has Mir kha Dighi or Mir Khan Dighi (mir kha pond) where canal connect to Ratna Nodi (Ratna River) besides the bank was a full of seasonal flood water over the flowing. The rowing boats are extremely busy everywhere with their daily routine carrying passengers and goods. The newer marriages relations are going to each other home with the gift of seasonal fruits and form of sweets. At one stage Paragal Khan showed his wife the celestial emotion of visiting in-laws homes and mentioned the gift of seasonal fruits. She said thus not a problem we still can go to the place where you found me under a tree shade. 

Paragal Khan became happy and said let’s not waste the time anymore and do the preparation for tomorrow’s journey. Paragal Khan was very happy: singingdancing and partying all the way till nightfall. Never let her go to sleep and kept her awake throughout the night. This time the paragal khan took his best royal racing boat and got double the crew for rowing and extra archers. The journey started in the early morning. Paragal Khan was very happy to tell some jokes to his loving wife so that it kept her amused until they reach the destination. She was very tired of partying, it had been one night for which she didn't sleep and also she had been pregnant for some months. 

When he took her to the same place where he found her, she was very excited and happy so they sat down together under shades of the tree. She straight away went to sleep on his thigh then he slowly lifted her head and took off his headdress and softly put it under her head. She had a very comfortable sleep which he took advantage of. As quickly as possible he went to the boat. Then he ordered his men to start rowing the boat as fast as they could. Minutes later she woke up and saw Paragal Khan was not there and the boat had gone far away. 

She extended her magical hand but, could not reach the boat for a few inches. The devil got very angry and upsettingly saying to Paragal Khan "you are very lucky to escape from me this time I could not finish you, but take your half baby” which she delivered herself and threw it near their boat. They couldn't bring the half of the baby because the boat was in full of speed and couldn't stop instantly. But they all survived from the huge mouth of the Ragkoshni (devil-woman) of Langla jungle

There is an ancient Bengali song composed between 1515-1519 by the late medieval poet Kavindra Parameshwar Das based on the annals of Sultan Ala-ud-Din Husain Shah and his general Paragal Khan which was the golden age of Hussain Shah.

According to the chronicle of TripuraRajmalaHussain Shah's four successive invasions did not succeed fully in their objectives. The first was a complete failure. The second conquered Comilla and proceeded inside Tripura, but the invading army was destroyed while crossing the Gomati River through a stratagem by the Tippera general, Rai Chai Chan, who had dammed the river upstream, therefore by blocking the flow of water to the lower reaches.

When the invaders, deceived by the dry riverbed, tried to cross it on foot, he had the dyke cut, and the invaders were washed away with their horses and weapons by the onrush of the flood waters. That there might have been some success is hinted at in the description of one Khwas Khan in Hussain Shah’s Sonargaon inscription (1513) as Sar-i-Lashkar (commander of Forces) in TripuraRajmala also refers to a number of instances when the Tripura forces applied witcraft to the discomfiture of the invaders.

The third expedition also met with failure. The final expedition ended in a victory against the Tripura forces led by King Dhanya Manikya at Kali fort, but this was also a limited success. Hussain Shah retained control over the approach to Chittagong, but did not succeed in his overall objective of conquering Tripura, despite some words in Sonargaon inscription suggesting some sort of annexation of Tripura area. As the Kingdom of Arakan had helped the King of Tripura in the closing phases of the war, the war with Tripura inevitably led to a war with Arakan.

Initially, Arakan forces had come and occupied Chittagong. In the year 1513 the Bengal army, led by Paragal Khan, advanced along the Feni River and tried to dislodge the Arakan forces. But this proved to be a long-drawn campaign which continued even after Paragal, under the leadership of his son Chhutti Khan. Chhutti captured Chittagong and could drive out the Arakanese only around 1516. According to Barrows, a contemporary Portuguese
writer, Arakan became the vassal Kingdom of Bengal, although this could only have been for a very brief period.

Hussain Shah's reign, a glorious epoch in Bengal's history, came to an end shortly after the reconquest of Chittagong around 1519. He had not only restored peace in the Kingdom after years of lawlessness, but also consolidated the traditional frontiers of Bengal and even extended them in several directions. His reign was marked by almost continuous fighting with the neighboring Kingdoms in all directions, but most of these wars were fought beyond the frontiers of Bengal. Therefore, the conditions inside the Kingdom were generally peaceful.

Husain Shah is also a memorable figure in history became he treated his Muslim and Hindu subjects alike and, like Akbar, tried to create a national monarchy to which all sections of the population showed loyalty. Many Hindus like Roop and Sanatan, who became Chaitanya's disciples, were appointed to high offices in the government, including the post of wazir. That the Hindus also gave him complete loyalty is illustrated by a Vaishnava poet’s description of Hussain Shah as an incarnation of lord Krishna.

Some historians have tried to underplay the secular character of Hussain Shah’s administration by dwelling on his destruction Orissa; but this was essentially the habit of all medieval generals while attacking another land, and there was no personal involvement of Hussain Shah himself. It was during his reign that the great saint Chaitanya preached Vaishnavism, which created an intense movement of bhakti in Bengal and drew followers from many sources into it, some of them Muslims.

This was also the first great age of Bengali literature and the fact that so many poets and scholars produced important works in Bengali during the reign of Husain Shah and his son, Nusrat Shah, would clearly indicate that the state patronised such activities and created conditional where such creative activities could flourished. That in some instances a few qazis objected to samkirtan (public chanting) and the procession of idols by Hindus is of lesser consequence than the fact that the government officials, in general, did not put on a restriction of these activities at Nabadwip and other towns and that some Muslim officials even patronised and participated in samkirtans.

Above all, the literature in Bengali had many adulatory references to Husain Shah. All aspects of his rule taken together, this was a great golden age for Bengal, the first such age after Bengal as such had emerged in history, shorn of the earlier name ‘Gaur’, and with a distinct cultural and racial identity and a common language for Bengalee people. The following verse from Parameshwar's Mahabharata is a self-evident testimony to contemporary Hindu attitudes to Hussain Shah:

Nripati Hussain Shah hai mahamati

Pancham Gaurete jar parama sukhyati
Ashtra shastre supandit mahima apar
Kalikale habu jeno Krishna avatar
Nripati Hussain Shah Gaurer Ishwar
Tar hok senapati Hasanta Laskar
Laskar Paragal Khan mahamati
Suvarna basan paila ashwa bayugati
Laskari bishaya pai aibanta chalia
Chatigrame chali gela harashita baiya
Putra pautre rajya kare Khan mahamati
puran shunante niti harashita mati

Hussain Shah is of noble mind. 

His great fame spreads All over Gaur
Well-versed in weaponry, his achievements are infinite. 
He is the incarnation of Krishna in the Kali era
King Hussain is the lord of Gaur. 
His commander Hasant Lashkar Paragal Khan has a great mind. 
He has gifted a golden dress and his horse was of wind's speed. 
Lashkar having recovered his possession moved on and arrived at Chittagong in a cheerful mood. The great Khan ruled the kingdom with sons and grandsons listening gladly to the puranas).

The lyricist Kavindra Parameshwar wrote an abridge version of the MahabharataHe is not the original author but his version contains 18 chapters of the original Mahabharata. The reason he made his version shorter was because he was instructed by his patron (Paragal Khan) to shorten it so that it was able to read within a day. 
The version of the epic was written from the time period of 1515-1519. 

Then moved from Baglarbari to Mirpur east of Khanbari or Khabari or Kharbari which is located southern bank of Mirkha Dhigi (where the clan of Paragal Khan lived). Which was the inheritance home on the maternal side "Khanbari" Mirpur mouza of Shaharpara pargana in the early nineteenth century where situated Post Office of Shaharpara. Some members of the second part of the family from inherited home moved to "Kholabari" or "Postofficebari" or "Dakbari" which was bought from Kala Miah or Kala sasa or Somai or Somoi Shahrong from "Boglabari" stepbrother of Khalil Shahrong or Kolilul Hoque (captain) and Jalil Shahrong they were from "Schoolbari", then the family moved to Kubaj pur and Algram  in Jagannathpur, under the pargana of Kuwazpur which is the pargana of Kuwaz Khan or Khwas Khan the minister of Muazzamabad from Shaharpara.

The location of "Postofficebari" or "Kholabari" is the west riverbank of Ratna Nodi just west of "Sharongbari" and north of "Schoolbari" between the home of "Shahjirgosty" in the early twentieth century. The home was extended by the addition of approximately two acres of land newly created from the paddy-field of Mirpur mouza just west of their original home at the beginning of the twenty-first century. During in the mid-twentieth century another member of the family from the inherited home moved to "Shodarbari" of "Mirpur". He was a postmaster. 

The third part of the family, Muhammad Danis whom commonly known as Danis Shahrong his maternal side was from Patli and his first married was arranged in the "Shahjirgosty" with Momina Khanum
also commonly known as Moharani who used firearms and his second married was with the Kolikatian woman. Moharani was also a judge of a village court (shalish) in the absent of Danis Sharong. Who was moved within the first part of the family to "Sharongbari" this was a new home build from west Tilak Paddy field called Kunabone of Shaharpara approximately seven acres of land area where the first part of the family. Keyasot Sharong (Captain) and Konu Miah Shahrong (Captain) lived. The brothers and their extended family lived in main "Baglarbari" as well as (two) and about one hundred meters west of "Boglabari" where another "Boglarbari" lives. (three) located on the west riverbank of Ratna Nodi in the "Mirpur" mouza in the pargana of Shaharpara at the end of the twentieth century. 

At the end of the nineteenth century, the aristocratic family of ShaharparaJagannathpurSunamgan, Sylhet, Bangladesh, the third part of the noble family of "Boglabari" moved to "Schoolbari" this was newly created home of about more than four acres land from the Paddy field of "Rasulpur mouza" located west of the riverbank of Ratna Nodi in the greater area of Shaharpara

Since the early twentieth century, the "Schoolbari" has an extended family in Calcutta 
(Paschim Bangla) and an additional home was created in the southern part of "Schoolbari" just west of Shaharpara w bazaar from the Paddy-field of "Rasulpur mouza", about two acres. For the Kolkata family. this was just after the Bangladesh Liberation War

They never returned from Calcutta just once after the war Akhtar Hussain (the second son of Jolil Shahrong) came to see us and to find out if we had survived the war. Jolil Shahrong had three children from the Kolkatian wive namely Gulzar Hussain, the elder son Akhtar Hussain, the younger son and daughter Guljan Bibi. Jolil Sarang died during the World War II

The Germany launched rocket guided missiles attacks on London by the Nazis leader Adolf Hitler and his Janazah was performed in the Shah Jahan Mosque and then he was buried in the only Muslim Burial GroundHorsell Commonin SurreyWokingUnited Kingdom

Master Akbar Ali or Akbor Ali master was a prominent primary school teacher. He started teaching when he was sixteen and after he finished read in a year eight class in Karimganj high School a district of the Indian state of Assam. He retired at the age of sixty-five after 48 years of teaching. This was his family founded primary model school of Shaharpara established in the year 1918, moved from "Schoolbari" to "Akbar-kutir" commonly known as Master-bari of west Tilak mouza in the mid-twentieth
century and bought about four acres of land, from few families and at actions. From "Shahrongbari" the descendant of Danis Shahrong moved to west side of Tilak bazaar beside southern Bari (home) a  newly created home from the Paddy field of west Tilak which was about two acres also extension southern part included. at the end of the twentieth century another descendant of Danis Shahrong moved to the west near Tilak Mosque on the main road of Tilak. Another descendant of Danis Shahrong Abdur Rahim moved to east Chawk Tilak or Chowk Tilok Mosque. Horof Miah of "Shahrongbari" moved to Kunabond Raj-ails road or Shah Kamal Road west of Shah Kamal High School. A newly created home which is more than one-acre paddy field land of west Tilak mouza which is under the pargana of Shaharpara.

These are the movements of three parts of the legendary, mighty and noble family of "Baglarbari" also known by the name "Baglagoshti" the clan from the treasury home of "Muazzamabad. The state was established by the Sultan Hazrat Shah Muazzam-ud-Din Qureshi (RA) seven hundred years ago. we are now celebrating the seven hundred anniversary of "Baglabari".

Shahjirbari family expansion list as below:

Mufftir Chawk or Chowk of Shaharpara pargana
West Tilak, mouza of Tilak under the pargana of Shaharpara.
Mirpur mouza & Rasulpur mouza of Shaharpara pargana
Mani Hara of Shaharpara pargana

Mullahbari family expansion list as below:  

mufti family of Dargah Mahallah Sylhet 

Mirpur mouza of Shaharpara of pargana
Qureshi family of Patli Jagannathpur 
Kurikiair Mullahgoshti of Shaharpara pargana
Abu Khali Narayanpur or Nurainpur Mullahgosty of Shaharpara pargana
Abu Khalir Parr Narayanpur or Nurainpur Hathbillah Mullahgosty of Shaharpara pargana
Ollimpur part of Mullahgosty Shaharpara pargana

Baglarbari family expansion list as below:

Mirpur mouza east of Khan-bari home of Shaharpara Pargana
Mirpur mouza Khola-bari of Kala Miah Shahrong of Shaharpara Pargana
Shahrong-bari of Danis Shahrong west Tilak of Shaharpara pargana
Postoffice-bari or Dakbari in Mirpur mouza of Shaharpara in the twentieth century
Kala Miah (nickname Shomoi) Shahrong Kubajpur in Jagannathpur, the pargana Kuwazpur of Kuwaz Khan or Khwas Khan minister of Muazzamabad from Shaharpara, in the twentieth  century
Shodar-bari in the Mirpur mouza of Shaharpara Pargana in the twentieth century
School-bari Rasulpur mouza of Shaharpara Pargana at the end of nineteenth century
Part of family remain in Kolkata from the early twentieth century
Akbar-kutir west Tilak of Shaharpara pargana in the mid-twentieth century
West of Tilak bazaar southern side home late twentieth of Shaharpara pargana
Mirpur mouza of Shaharpara Pargana Boglarbari three at the end of the twentieth century
Raj-ails road also called Shah Kamal Road or Mukam Road home Horof Miah west Tilak of Shaharpara pargana at the end of twentieth century
West Tilak east side of Tilak Mosque home at the end of twentieth century of Shaharpara pargana
East of Chawk Tilak Mosque home of Shaharpara Pargana beginning of twenty-first century 

Surroundings areas map of Shaharpara

The twelve Sufi disciples of 
Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan are as follows:
(1). Hazrat Pir Kallu Shah (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), Pirergaon of Shaharpara pargana in Jagannathpur upazilla, whose offspring can be found in Sahib-bari of Pirergaon.

(2). Hazrat Shah Chand (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) offspring of Hazrat Pir Kallu Shah, Chand Bharang in Bishwanath upazillah. Whose descendants are known as Shah or Chowdhury family of Chand Bharang.
(3). Hazrat Dawar Bakhsh Khattab (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) descendant of Hazrat Umar ibn Khattab (RA) (Radhiyallaho Anho), Dawarai in Jagannathpur upazila. His descendants are known as Khan of Dawarai.
(4). Hazrat Dilwar Bakhsh Khattab (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), younger brother of Hazrat Dawar Bakhsh Khattab, Dawarai in Jagannathpur upazila. His descendants are known as Khan family of Dawarai.
(5). Hazrat Shaikh Shamsuddin Bihari (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), in Aatghar Bishwanath upazila. Whose descendants are known as Khan family of Aatghar.
(6). Hazrat Shah Faiz Ullah (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), Fesi in Jagannathpur upazilaHistorians are silent on his descendant

(7). Hazrat Shah Jalaluddin (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), Kuskipur in Osmani Nagar upazillah. Whose descendants are known as Shah family of Kuskipur.

(8). Hazrat Syed Taj-ud-Din (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), Orompur in Osmani Nagar upazila. Whose descendants are known as Sayyid family of Orompur.

Syed Taj-ud-Din, Hazrat Syed Baha-ud-Din, Hazrat Syed Rukn-ud-Din and Hazrat Syed Shams-ud-Din were brothers and posterity of Hazrat Syed Ala-uddin or Hazrat Sayyid Ala-Ud-Din (RA) and maternal nephews of Hazrat Shah Kamal Quhafani. Their father came to Sylhet with the Sultan Hazrat Shah Jalal, but they came with Hazrat Shah Kamal Quhafa from Baghdad Persia.

(9). Hazrat Syed Baha-ud-Din (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), Bhadeshwar in Golapganj Upazila, historians are silent of his descendant.

(10). Hazrat Syed Rukn-ud-Din (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), Kadamhati in Maulvi BazarSyed Mujtaba Ali, a renowned novelist descendant of Hazrat Syed Ruknuddin their family known as Sayyid family of Kadamhati.

(11). Hazrat Syed Shams-ud-Din (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), Syedpur Jagannathpur upazillah. Whose offspring are known as Sayyid family of Syedpur.
Shams-ud-Din Sahib was the younger of all the brothers; some historian indicates that he was in his teen when he came to Sylhet and thus his name was not included when history of Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) and his companions were initially penned. 

Nevertheless, Hazrat Shah Kamal Qattani (RA) loved his youngest nephew Syed Shamsuddin Sahib and was not sent away like others. Syed Shamsuddin Sahib lived with his uncle, Hazrat Shah Kamal Qattani (RA), in Shaharpara till Syed Shams-ud-Din Sahib reached his maturity. His marriage was arranged with a daughter of Hazrat Shah Dawood Qureshi (RA) Dawoodpur in Renga, 

Sylhet and Syed Shams-ud-Din Sahib lived in Shaharpara for some years his marriage and then sojourned in Dawoodpur with his in-law's family. Eventually, Hazrat Syed Shams-Ud-Din (RA) returned to Shaharpara and he was instructed settle with his family in a village west of Shaharpara called Krishnapur and this village was later named Syedpur, which is in Jagannathpur upazilaSunamganj District of Sylhet Division

The Land division between Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan (RA) Sahib and his maternal nephew Hazrat Syed Shams-Ud-Din (RA) Sahib in the fourteenth century was agreed after fajr prayer and after a recitation of one-third of the Qur'an. Shamsuddin Sahib, after Fajr prayer according to the verbal agreement, started to walk from Syedpur from the west towards the east and Shah Kamal Sahib walked from the east to the west where the two would meet on the border. 

After the fajr prayer, Shah Kamal Sahib recited one-third of the Qur'an and then began his walk towards the west according to the agreement made by both parties. When Shah Kamal Sahib left his Mukam or Maqam (Dargah Sharif) he crossed the Shahzir-bari and came to the Paddy field where he saw Syed Shams-Ud-Din Sahib in front of him. Hazrat Shah Kamal Sahib asked him, “didn’t you recite the Qur'an?” 

In response to that Syed Shams-ud-Din Sahib said, “I did like you taught me that if a person recites the Surat al-Ikhlas (Sura112) which was equal to a third of the Qur'anHazrat Shah Kamal (RA) Sahib accepted and said to Hazrat Syed Shams-Ud-Din (RA), “One day my posterity will buy the land from your descendants.” Today the progeny of Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahtan (RA) Sahib bought the land from the offspring of Hazrat Syed Shams-Ud-Din (RA) Sahib up to Syedpur Borodara. 

In the year 1984 Hazrat Maulana Abdul Lotif Sheikh Sahib (RA) better known as (Fultulir Sheikh Sahib) was beaten up by the people of Syedpur because of Waladaaleen and Walajaaleen (daaleen & jaaleen). Then the people of Vobair Bazar blocked their way to go of Sylhet. After that, the people of Syedpur requested the people of Shaharpara, as relatives, to give them the way to Sylhet because they didn't have an alternative way to go to Sylhet

So then, the people of Shaharpara actively worked with them to build the road and give them the way to Sylhet. Again, the people of Syedpur took advantage of the people of Shaharpara and took the name of the Road from Goala Bazar to Vobair Bazar Syedpur Road because their people worked in the administration area. Previously they took the Union name as Syedpur then the people of Shaharpara complained, so they included Shaharpara and called it Syedpur-Shaharpara Union

Shaharpara is the Pargana and historically known throughout the whole of Eastern Bengal

where many historical people lived. Therefore, the history demands that Syedpur Road should change to Shaharpara Road and extend from Goala Bazar to Pagla Sunamganj main road Paragola Pargana of Paragal Khan (Pagla) which is derived from Paragal Khan who lived in Shaharpara and was the ruler of Eastern Bengal.

(12). Hazrat Shah Manik (RA) (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), Commonly known as Hazrat Shah Kala Manik Sahib (Royal Highness), Mani Hara of Shaharpara pargana  Jagannathpur upazilahistorians are silent on his descendant.
(Picture of Syedpur Hazrat Syed Shamsuddin Mosque (place of worship) the national prehistoric heritage sites of BangladeshisPersianArabianOdishaIndianTurkishIslamabadNetherlandsFranceUnited Arab Emirates, IranBaghdadEgyptIraqIranians, Abu DhabiKabulAfghanistanRussiaThailandVietnamAmericaUnited StatesCanadaGermanySwedenCairo).

The above 
villages’ names are consequently received of these saint’s settlement and they swore an oath of allegiance to Hazrat Shah Kamal Quhafa Qahtan (RA).

And also, they were instructed to propagate Islam as well as mankind-ship throughout the region of Muazzamabad Eastern Bengal (Sunamganj District) and some part of Jalalabad (presently Sylhet) from where most of the populaces are converted to Islam within a few decades from 1303 CE, 
by the hands of Hazrat Shah Jalal (R.A) and his companions. As they successors are accomplished with their missions, they were permitted to marry local women and raise their own family with the status of landlords. 

The history of Shaharpara reveals that the Greater Sylhet was conquered by Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) in 1303 CE, with the aid of his 360 Awliyas or auliyas whose ethnicity link to the Clan of the Quraysh the tribe of Arabs. The district was at one time divided into at least three pretty kingdoms: Gaur or Gor or Sylhet proper or 
Srihatta Rajya, Laur and Jaintia. The conquers lands of Gour or Gor kingdom or Srihatta RajyaJaintia kingdom and Lour kingdom or Laur kingdom or La'urh kingdom or Loud kingdom or Lauar kingdom were divided among Hazrat Shah Jalal (RA) Sahib and Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahafan or Qahtan (RA) Sahib companions for the establishment of the great religion of Islam as well as mankind-ship throughout the region and welfare. 

Forest clearing and the growth of Islam in Bengal

Bengalis compromise the world’s largest Muslim ethnic population, after the Arabs. This fact seems all the more remarkable in view of Bengal's geographic position. With the Himalayan Mountains lying to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, Buddhist Burma
to the cast, and the mainly Hindu upper Gangetic valley to the west, the delta occupies something of a geocultural cul-de-sac, quite isolated from the rest of the Muslim world.

To explain the growth of Bengal's large Muslim population, especially in the eastern delta where the density of Muslim is highest, one of these is geographic in nature. In the early thirteenth century, at the dawn of Muslim rule in the delta, a Brahmanic social order, organized into hierarchically arranged castes and presided over by Brahmins, was already entrenched in largely agrarian west Bengal

In 1349 a Chinese merchant, Wang Ta-Yuan, who had spent several decades visiting overseas localities for the purpose of trade, described the densely populated and agrarian western delta of Bengal, where he found a flourishing textile industry, intensive farming, regular taxation, and the circulation of silver currency. He also alluded to the process of forest clearing and land reclamation, evidently referring activities already undertaken in western Bengal by 
Hindu pioneers.

In Bengal's sparsely populated and more thickly forested eastern tracts, by contrast, Brahmanic religious and social institutions had by that time barely begun to appear. Gradually, however, a slow but steady eastward shift of the region’s major river systems caused agrarian civilization, and with it the delta’s demographic epi-centre, to migrate from west to east. As this happened, the great forests of the central and eastern delta were cut and the land prepared for regular civilization, while local inhabitants were transformed from shifting (swidden, or Jhum) cultivators to settled wet-rice farmers.

Although most Mangal-Kāvya honour deities, the present text, the Sekasubho-daya, focuses on a historical figure, Shaykh Jalal ad-Din Tabrizi (d. 1244/45). Composed in Sanskrit mixed with early Middle Bengali, and recorded in Bengali script, the text as we have it dates to the second half of the sixteenth century. However, oral traditions concerning its hero appear to have crystallized within a century or so of his lifetime, since the work draws on popular legends datable to the fourteenth or fifteenth century. 

Jalal al-Din Tabrizi's known biographical facts are spare. Around 1228 he left his native 
Tabriz in Iran after Baghdad, where he studied Sufism with Shaykh Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi. Sometime after 1235, when his master died, he journeyed to Delhi; capital of the newly established and rapidly expanding Delhi Sultanate. Not feeling welcome there, the Shaykh continued on to Lakhnauti, in the sultanate’s easternmost province of Bengal. There he remained until his death in 1244/45.

Mainly because the Shaykh reached Bengal at a critical juncture in the delta’s political and cultural history, folk memory considerably elaborated on his life and career. In 1204, not long before his arrival, armies of the Delhi Sultanate had invaded eastern India and overthrown and overthrown Lakshmana Sena, ruler of Bengal under its last Hindu dynasty, the Sena's. After driving the king into the remote swamps of the eastern delta, the conquerors annexed western Bengal to the Delhi Sultanate, establishing their provincial base in Lakhnauti, a former capital of the deposed raja

Seeking to explain the region’s abrupt political upheaval, subsequent generations of Bengalis appear to have seized upon an evolving memory of Jalal al-Din Tabrizi, whose career coincided approximately in place and time with that upheaval. Although the Shaykh reached the delta several decades after the Turkish conquest, the narrative has him arriving while Lakshmana Sena was still reigning. Even though the conquering Turks had forcibly imposed their rule on Bengal, the narrative makes no mention of the conquest.

By a process of “creative remembering,” then, Jalal al-Din's career as reworked in the Sekasubhodaya eases the transition from an older to a newer political order. Recalling that the written version we have dates to the later sixteenth century, it also serves to connect the delta’s Hindu past with a Muslim “present.” The text does this not only by narrating the story of how the Shaykh built Bengal’s first mosque, symbolizing the establishment of Islam in the delta but also by drawing attention to Lakshmana Sena's assistance in the project. For it is the raja who transfers to Jalal ad-Din uncultivated forest land to which by the Shaykh recruits labourers, and on which he establishes new settlements.

The narrative thus encapsulates complex socio-religious processes that had already begun by the late sixteenth century, when the text achieved its written form. The text depicts a state handing over forest lands to a charismatic Muslim pioneer, who in turn organizes and finances local labour in order to found agrarian settlements and establish markets, thereby bringing formerly forested areas into productive use. Crucially, the whole revolves around a single institution- a mosque. In this way, the story of Jalal al-Din Tabrizi served as a mirror onto which Bengalis of later generations back-projected socio-religious processes that were occurring in their own day.


On the bank of the Ganga [Ganges RiverLakshmana, the high-souled ornament of a great king, a ruler of the earth...a conqueror whose greatness is proclaimed in inscriptions, was looking toward the river. The ruler saw [a man] coming into his view from the western quarter and asked him, “Who are you? Where from are you?”...

Then the king thought within himself. Bowing low his head to the [river] goddess after muttering "GangaGanga," the king saw him in the west, [walking] over water.

He, wearing black clothes, stalwart, engaged in putting on a turban and looking about, was approaching the king quicker and quicker... the king said, “I have indeed seen a wondrous act: a man rising up from the stream and walking on water. His person appears shining with the glow of penance.”...

The Shaykh, his face smiling, raised his hand, slowly came up and spoke to the king, “A scion of the house of the Senas! As has been said by you to us, you, famous on earth [by the name] Lakshmana, are sung as the king by men...But you claim [to be] ruler of the earth.”

At this time there appears a heron holding a gaci fish in its beak. The Shaykh pointed it out to the king and said: “Listen, O king. You indeed claim to be the ruler of the earth. Ask the heron: let it give up the fish.” Then the king replied: “The heron is a bird indeed and has no human sense. How can it give up the fish by our order? If you have power, speak. Let it give up by your order.”

Then the Shaykh said: “see, O king, my power.” At a look from the Shaykh the heron dropped the fish and flew away. Then the king became thoughtful. He appealed mentally to his tutelary deity Durga: “Supreme lady, save me. The Shaykh has come before me as if assuming the form of my fate. I am afraid I shall not survive this day.”

Then the minister spoke to the king, “You have done wrongly, O king, as you are walking in this fellow’s company. He wears a black garment and he looks like a Mussalman.”

Then the king said to the minister, “What rubbish are you talking, you fool, not knowing the secret of the master. Wearing the robes of a dervish, Indra has come here in person.”

To the king who was looking for a suitable place, the Shaykh said, “I shall put on a disguise and move about. Wherever I would find a good spot I shall raise a house of God.” The Shaykh came to Pandu city and sat down in the front terrace of the cowherd’s home.

Then the Shaykh said, “Within this area, I will build a house of God.” Now after a few days the king heard and came there.

Then the Shaykh requested the king, “Listen, king, in the midst [of the ocean] there is the house of the Pirs; above it stands the sanctuary of the Supreme Being.

“Three cupped-handfuls [of water] are offered in his name. In the east the hill is called the Sunrise Mount; the sun rises from there at the dawning of the morn. A Kirata [a mountain or forest dweller] will know and pay respect to my adobe. The fourth cupped-handful is offered in his name.

“In the north are the Himalayas, the adobe of the gods. There I shall go. When I arrive there they would honour me. The fifth cupped-handful is offered in their name.

“My parents are offsprings of poor people; they suffered a great deal on my score. Let them be freshened by water from me. The sixth cupped-handful is offered in their name.

“The people of the world know my name. Some call me good, some heap insults on me. The seventh cupped-handful is offered in their name.

“Who being a king would do honour to me and would give food in my name to a person coming for the first time, in his name is offered the eighth cupped-handful.

“Who would stay in my village, and if in spite of suffering, he does no harm but pays respect
 afterward, in his name the ninth cupped-handful is offered.

“Many men would, out of their own accord, bow down at my adobe. Some (of them) desire for money and children, and the boon of recovery. I will save them. The tenth cupped-handful is offered in their name.”

Saying this, he dug a pond and worshipping it with flower and sandal-paste set a pillar in it. Everyone heard a spontaneous shout of cheers...

Then on the other day the king called all the masons together. When they were assembled, the Shaykh said to them, “O masons, you all work together and build a house of God, famous in the world as Masjid.”  The masons replied to the Shaykh, “O great one, we have never seen or heard what a Masjid is. How can we build it?”

Then the king ordered the collection of materials. Then the artisans spoke, “How shall we get our wages? You are a Beggar.” Then the Shaykh smiled and said to the artisans, “Take a Bakul leaf and by my order write...” Into it he placed his gracious hand and told the artisans, you go to the marketplace and opening the bundle, give it to a merchant. You will get your respective wages.”

Then the king said to the Shaykh, “As the first thing I offer this forest land to you. For the rest, what pleases you to command, do you command. This forest is granted to you.” So the Shaykh himself first started the name of the place as Devatala. Then he invited people from the country and had them settled in that land.

Thus a few days, were passed as the house of God was being built. When the building of the house of God was completed, the Shaykh told the king, “King, I wish to make a daily charity of fifty coins from the house of God to [persons], whether kings or beggars. And you give it to me as borrowers.” Then the king replied, “I will give it daily at your command.”

The Shaykh knew all the land and territory. Devatala was established as the chief [of the Shaykh'svillagese. He then made [the village of] Nandauva, after that Asamanahatta, and in the northern region, villages worth six thousand, (namely) Lahu- cari, Bahaba, Rajadina...

Where there is the city of Ramavati renowned in the world, beyond that Purvahatta (eastern market), Uttarahatta (northern market), and Madaihatta (central market). He acquired all of them and had them surveyed. Documents were made for [a revenue of] twenty thousand [coins.]

After the Shaykh had taken possession of the village and the king was informed, the good king issued a writ written by his own hand. He submitted to the Shaykh, “Do what is to be done.” Then the Shaykh brought all men together and issued documents of settlement.

The Shaykh divided the money and distributed a [permanent gift] that would never be discontinued to all indebted persons and to travellers. To all these, the Shaykh made his charity, including the very low-born bearers. No one should be found very much needy; doles should be obtained daily; there should be no need to hoard money, and the daily bread should be available [to all].

[The Shaykh said,] “The house of God, Masjid, was made ready and named after myself and the territory was named Seka-jalala-tabreji [Shaikh Jalaluddin Tabrizi] and settled.” 

The Hero then bought and distributed among them
Heavy knives, axes, battle-axes and pikes.
From the north came the Das (people),
One hundred of them advanced.
They were struck with wonder on seeing the Hero,
Who distributed betel nut to each of them.
From the south came the harvesters,
Five hundred of them under one organizer.
From the west came zafar mian,
Together with twenty-two thousand men.
Sulaimi beads in their hands,
They chanted the names of their pir (spiritual guide) and the prophet.
Having cleared the forest,
They established markets.
Hundreds and hundreds of foreigners
Ate and entered the forest.
Hearing the sound of the axe,
Tigers became apprehensive and ran away, roaring.

Hagiographies, the recorded lives of saints, comprise another source for the history of Islam in Bengal. Like the mangala-Kāvyas examined above, these are also socially constructed texts. Though purporting to describe another person’s life story, they often reflect the culture, the social class, and the worldview of the communities that produce them. As a result, hagiographies of one and the same saint can vary enormously, depending on the context of their composition. A case in point is the career of Bengal's most renowned saint, Shah Jalal Mujarras (d. 1346) of Sylhet, a town on the far eastern edge of the Bengal delta

The earlier notice of Shah Jalal was made by the famous Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta (d.1377), who met the Shaykh in 1345 in his mountain cave near Sylhet.
"Rihla" where Ibn battuta narrated Shah Jalal mission in Barak Valley: "He was one of the greatest of Saint's and most unique man. He performed famous miracles as well as great and memorable deeds. He was a man for advanced in years. He informed me (May God have mercy on him!) he had been the Abbasid Caliph Musta'asim-Billah, at Bagdad and that he was in the city at the time of the Caliph's assassination (AD 1258 that should be around1256/1257 AD by proper calculation from original Hijri era). 

Subsequently, his disciples informed me that the Shaykh died at the age of 150; that he had been observing the fast for about forty years and was not in the habit of breaking it until after the lapse of ten consecutive days. He would remain standing pray all night. He was a lean, tall man, with sunken cheeks. Through his efforts, many of the mountaineers became converts to Islamism. The Moroccan described Shah Jalal as a man of hoary age, locally renowned for his miraculous powers. A 1512-1513 inscription describes him simply as a revered asceticThe earliest hagiographical record of Shah Jalal appeared a century later in a collection of notices on Indian Sufis, the Gulzar-I Abrar, compiled in 1613 by Muhammad Ghauthi. 

By this time Mughal imperialists had consolidated their control over most of north India, including Bengal, while a sizeable Muslim peasant society had already begun to appear in the eastern delta. Endeavouring to account for these new realities, Indo-Persian hagiographers of this period often conflated military conquest with religious conversionThey accomplished this by back-projecting onto the lives of earlier holy men the persona of the warrior-saint, a fearsome ascetic who with one hand defeats infidel warriors and with the other “brings Islam” to the general populationAccordingly, the Gulzar-I Abrar portrays Shah Jalal as a central Asian Sufi who, burning with desire to wage the lesser jihad” against infidels, persuades his teacher to send him to India

Reaching Sylhet, Shah Jalal and his several hundred warrior-companions (ghazis) engage and defeat an army of one hundred thousand soldiers commanded by the local RajaGur Govind, who is killed in battle. Shah Jalal then distributes the raja's land to his followers to governIn contrast to this militant portrayal of Shah Jalal, we may consider the hagiography that appears below, the Suhail-I Yaman, which was compiled at a much later date, in 1859. Its compiler, Maulvi Muhammad Nasir al-Din Haidar, wrote that his work was based on two earlier manuscripts, both now lost: the Rauzat al-Salihin, said to have been compiled in the reign of Aurangzeb (1658-1707), and the Risala-yi mu’in al-Din Khadim, composed between 1716 and 1727. 

The Suhail-I Yaman may thus be understood as a composite reconstruction
 based on traditions stretching across several hundred years, from the mid-seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries. During this period Islam in Bengal had become an overwhelmingly agrarian pietyThe reason the Shaykh chooses to settle in sylhet is not because he is looking for infidels to slay or convert, but because sylhet's soil is right: its smell, taste, and colour exactly match the clump of soil that his spiritual teacher had given him before Shah Jalal departed for IndiaEven today Muslim cultivators in the north central Bangladesh relate the story of Shah Jalal and his clump of soil as the explanation for how their ancestors became Muslims

The Suhail-I Yamani differs from earlier accounts of Shah Jalal in still other ways. Reflecting the cultural orientation of the Mughals, whose founders had migrated to India from Central Asia, the 1613 Gulzar-I Abrar identifies Shah Jalal as having come to Bengal from TurkestanIt further identifies the Shaykh's spiritual guide as Ahmad Yesevi (d. 1166), the founder of the central Asian Sufi

 tradition. The Suhail-I Yaman, by contrast, reflected a later moment in the history of south Asian Islam, by which time Muslims had begun to place emphasis on their spiritual roots in the Middle East, rather than their genealogical roots in central Asia

Hence in this text Shah Jalal's origins are no longer held to be held in Turkestan but rather in Yemen; the work’s title, Suhail-I Yaman, means “the Canopus (star) of Yemen.” 

And finally, the Hindu raja of Sylhet, Gur Govind, is not crushed by Shah Jalal as he was in the earlier, 1613, hagiography, rather, he assisted the newcomer in building the region’s first mosque, thereby involving himself in establishing Islam in Bengal. In this respect, his role resembles that of Lakshman Sen in the Sekasubhodaya: because a former raja assists in building the first mosque, a prior Hindu cultural world is constructed as connected to a subsequent Muslim world, and not annihilated by that world

He was born in Yemen, the son of Shaykh Mahmud bin Muhammad Ibrahim, a member of the Quraish clan of Yemen. His mother was a Saiyida....His maternal uncle, Ahmad Kabir Suhrawardi, nourished him on the milk of cattle

When the boy attained maturity, his uncle gave him training in the Suhrawardi school of mystical knowledge, which was transmitted to him by the following chain of authority: from [the school’s founder] Shaykh Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi, to shaykh Makhdum Baha al-Din, to Abu’l-fazl Sadr al-Din, to Shaykh Abu’l-fatah Rukn al-Din, to Jalal al-Din Bukhari, to Saiyid Ahmad Kabir Suhrawardi, to Shah Jalal.

Being very pleased with Jalal's spiritual growth, his uncle said to him Jalal, you have attained the utmost; your heart and mine have become one. But I do not wish to keep you imprisoned." Then taking a clump of soil that he had earlier picked up from the ground underneath his own spiritual retreat, he placed that clump in hand of his disciple, saying, "Now you must go to India, and when you find soil with the same colour, smell, and taste as this soil, you should stop and settle in that land, after driving out the Infidels." 

In short, that "soil of [the prophet] khizr" travelled, as that holy man [Shah Jalal] travelled east with the intention of liberating Sylhet from the hands of its oppressors. Finding no boat when he reached the banks of the Brahmaputra River, he spread out his prayer carpet so that he and the other fighters (muhajidin) might cross it.

[When he reached Sylhet] he shouted out its reigning monarch, "Oh 
Gur Govind how is your health?" when Gur Govind heard the Shaykh's soothing voice, he jumped out of his sandals and lowered his head to the ground in a gesture servitude. Then he said, "I have handed over the rule of this kingdom to Sikander. 

What further service is there I might do for you?" Shah Jalal replied, "If you can, get enough stone and brick for building a pleasing mosque."Gur Govind went to the mountains and within the supervision of his chief minister found the requisite stones and bricks, which he sent to Shah Jalal. From these materials, the Shaykh then built a mosque having one hundred and twenty domes.

While [Shah Jalal] was in the city [of Sylhet], he noticed that one particular mount of earth-the one where his shrine is now located-possessed a soil of the same smell, taste, and colour as that given him by his own Shaykh. So he settled there...He then assigned the administration of Sylhet's town and parganas [revenue circles] to his 360 companions, keeping his closest associates-the prince of Yemen, Sheikh Ali near Shah Jalal's shrine. 

The King of Yemen to whom the spiritual status of Hazrat Shah Jalal became known invited him and tried to test his spiritual status by offering him a glass of Sherbat with poison mixed in it. Hazrat Shah Jalal immediately detected the test which the King was putting him through intuition. 

Hazrat Shah Jalal drank the glass containing poison Sherbat with the words: "Good Or Bad Every Thing Is Ordained For Everybody. One Gets What One Think Of." Nothing happened to Hazrat Shah Jalal, but the King died. 

The crown prince instead of becoming King preferred to become a dervish and discarded the crown, giving preference to becoming a simple ordinary man of God.
Near Shah Jalal's Dargah, Sheikh Ali the prince of Yemen Haji Yusuf near Haji Daria near Haji Khalil and his most advanced disciples-near his hospice

Ploughs should also be given on behalf of the state. The price of these ploughs should be realized from the zamindars in two to three years. Each halmir [one who has four or five ploughs] should be found out and given a dastar [sash or turban; i.e. marks of honour] so that he may clear the forests and bring land into cultivation. In this manner, the people and the ri’aya would be attracted by good treatment to come from other regions and subas (provinces) to bring under cultivation wasteland and land under forests.

If the above records provide a general statement on Mughal land management policies, the following document, a sanad (order) ISSUED EARLY in Aurangzeb's reign, is very narrowly focused. In granting tax-free status to a mosque and its affiliates on the condition that the latter bring some 166 acres of jungle, into cultivation, the document links to Islamic piety with agrarian policy. Hundreds of such land grants had the combined effect of transferring management of large tracts of former jungles to tiny mosques, whose managers took the lead in supervising the cutting of forests and introducing cultivation.


Clerks, assessors past and present, headmen, accounts, and peasants of the revenue circles of Sarkar Islamabad [i.e. Chittagong], know that:
Shah Zain al-‘Abidin has made it known that he has many dependants and has built a mosque, where a great many faqirs and inhabitants come and go. But, as he has no means of maintaining the mosque, he is hopeful that the government will bestow some land on him.

Having investigated the matter, the revenue department has fixed the sum of six shahi dun and eight kani [i.e. 166.4 acres] of jungle land, lying outside the revenue rolls, and located in villages Nayapara and others of Pargana Havili Chittagong, as a charity for the expenses of the mosque as well as the needs of himself, his descendants and his dependants. And he must assiduously pray for the survival of the powerful State.

He and his descendants are not required to pay any land revenue or non-land revenue, highway taxes, bridge taxes, special cesses, or any other assessments issuing from either the administrative or the revenue branches of government. Nor is he bound to see a fresh sanad each year. Take great care to execute this order. Dated 2 Rabi I 1077 [A.H.]

In the following order, the Mughal government issues 250 qulbas [975 acres] of jungles, lying outside the revenue rolls but capable of being cultivated, to the “organization”- actually a labour force- of one Maulavi Muhammad Rabi aka Maulavi Mohammad Rabi Khan title Danishman’. This is one of four land grants that the provincial officials issued to this individual. Since the combined area granted to Muhammad Rabi’ in these grants came to 15,717 acres, or over twenty-four square miles, his workforce would've been of considerable size.

Revenue documents like this confirm what the mangala-Kāvyas and hagiographic literature hint at, namely, that states rewarded Muslim pioneers who agreed to settle former jungle lands by recruiting local labour to cut forests and farm new arable lands. The fact that the beneficiaries of the grants were Islamic institutions- in the present instance, a madrasa and a mosque- meant that non-Muslim labourers recruited to work on these units would become gradually absorbed into communities informed by Islamic ideas and values.


Present and former clerks of public affairs, landholders (chaudhuris), accountants, recorders, peasants, and cultivators of [such and such] revenue circles, in the district of Sylhet, attached to the province of Bengal, know that:
In the second regnal year the amount of two hundred and fifty qulbas [975 acres] of jungle land that lies outside of the revenue register but is capable of cultivation, and which is located in the above-mentioned revenue circle, was established to meet the expenses of a mosque, a house, a Qur'an school (madrasa), the dependants, those who come and go, the faqirs, and the welfare (madad-I ma’sh) of the labourers and the deeds of the organization (dastgah) of Maulavi Muhammad Rabbi’, together with his children and dependants.
It is agreed that once the above-mentioned land is brought into cultivation, its produce should be used to support the expenses of the mosque, the Qur'an school, those who come and go, the faqirs, and his own needs, together with those of his children and his dependants, and that he shall busy himself in prayers for the long life of the State.

Sekasubhodaya: Sukumar Sen, ed. And trans., Sekasubhodaya of Halayudha Misra (Calcutta: Asiatic Society 1963), pp. 135-255. Kavikankana Candi: Mukundaram, Kavikankana Candi, Srikumar Bandyopadhyay and Vispati Chaudhuri, eds. (Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1974), pp. 299-300. Suhail-I Yaman: Suhail-I Yemen, ya Tarikh-I Jalali, comp. Maulvi Muhammad Nasir al-Din Haider, 1277 A.H. Persian MS in the Muslim Sahitya Samsad, Sylhet, 4-27. Haqiqat-I Suba Bihar: catalogued under the title Kaifiyat-I Suba Bihar in Wilhelm Pertsch, Handschriften-Verzeichniss der Koniglichen Bibliothek zu Berlin (Berlin: A. Asher, 1888), persische Handschriften no. 500, 4:484. Summarized and partially translated by S.Nurul. Extract by Dilly Meah has been taken from the book: Islam in South Asia in Practice.

Source of shuhel-e-yamani [1], means "the Canopus (star) of Yemen.

Titles of Monarchs        

Monarchs have various titles, including king or queen, prince or princess (Sovereign Prince of Monaco), emperor or empress (Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), or even duke